#### Class XI - Syllabus

- Physics:Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.
- Need for measurement:Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.
- Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

- Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion,average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs, for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).
- Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.Scalar and vector quantities:Position and displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.
- Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components.
- Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.

- Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newtonâ€™s first law of motion; momentum and Newtonâ€™s second law of motion;impulse; Newtonâ€™s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.
- Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.
- Dynamics of uniform circular motion.Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road,vehicle on banked road).

- Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.
- Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

- Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.
- Moment of a force,-torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples.
- Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

- Keplerâ€™s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
- Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.

- Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship. Hookeâ€™s law, Youngâ€™s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity,poissonâ€™s ratio; elasticenergy.
- Viscosity, Stokesâ€™ law, terminal velocity, Reynoldâ€™s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulliâ€™s theorem and its applications.
- Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops,bubbles and capillary rise.
- Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv-calorimetry; change of stateâ€“latent heat.
- Heat transfer-conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation. Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation,Weinâ€™s displacement law, and Green House effect.
- Newtonâ€™s law of cooling and Stefanâ€™s law.

- Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.
- Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.

- Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.
- Kinetic theory of gases:Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path.

- Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion(SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHMâ€“Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.
- Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave.Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect.

#### Class XII - Syllabus

- Electric charges and their conservation. Coulombâ€™s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
- Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole;torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
- Electric flux, statement of Gaussâ€™s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside)
- Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric diploes in an electrostatic field.
- Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization,capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator.

- Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohmâ€™s law, electrical resistance,V-I characteristics (liner and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity.
- Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.
- Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.
- Kirchhoffâ€™s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
- Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells;measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

- Concept of magnetic field, Oerstedâ€™s experiment. Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
- Ampereâ€™s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
- Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
- Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron.Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines;Earthâ€™s magnetic field and magnetic elements.
- Para-, dia- and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples.
- Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

- Electromagnetic induction; Faradayâ€™s law, induced emf and current; Lenzâ€™s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance.
- Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations(qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current.
- AC generator and transformer.

- Need for displacement current.
- Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
- Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

- Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-makerâ€™s formula. Magnification, power of alens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
- Scattering of light-blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
- Optical instruments:Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses.
- Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
- Wave optics:Wavefront and Huygensâ€™ principle,reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts.
- Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygensâ€™ principle.
- Interference, Youngâ€™s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.
- Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.
- Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewsterâ€™s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.

- Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenardâ€™s observations; Einsteinâ€™s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.
- Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).

- Alpha-particle scattering experiments; Rutherfordâ€™s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.
- Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect;binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.